This light appears reddish for the same reason that a sunset or sunrise does: the Rayleigh scattering of bluer light. Due to this reddish color, a totally eclipsed Moon is sometimes called a blood moon. Unlike a solar eclipse , which can only be viewed from a relatively small area of the world, a lunar eclipse may be viewed from anywhere on the night side of Earth. A total lunar eclipse can last up to nearly 2 hours, while a total solar eclipse lasts only up to a few minutes at any given place, due to the smaller size of the Moon's shadow. Also unlike solar eclipses, lunar eclipses are safe to view without any eye protection or special precautions, as they are dimmer than the full Moon.
For the date of the next eclipse, see the section Recent and forthcoming lunar eclipses. Earth's shadow can be divided into two distinctive parts: the umbra and penumbra.
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Earth totally occludes direct solar radiation within the umbra, the central region of the shadow. However, since the Sun's diameter appears about one-quarter of Earth's in the lunar sky , the planet only partially blocks direct sunlight within the penumbra, the outer portion of the shadow. A penumbral lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes through Earth's penumbra. The penumbra causes a subtle dimming of the lunar surface. A special type of penumbral eclipse is a total penumbral lunar eclipse , during which the Moon lies exclusively within Earth's penumbra.
Total penumbral eclipses are rare, and when these occur, the portion of the Moon closest to the umbra may appear slightly darker than the rest of the lunar disk. A partial lunar eclipse occurs when only a portion of the Moon enters Earth's umbra, while a total lunar eclipse occurs when the entire Moon enters the planet's umbra.
The Moon's average orbital speed is about 1. Nevertheless, the total time between the first and the last contacts of the Moon's limb with Earth's shadow is much longer and could last up to four hours.
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The relative distance of the Moon from Earth at the time of an eclipse can affect the eclipse's duration. In particular, when the Moon is near apogee , the farthest point from Earth in its orbit , its orbital speed is the slowest. The diameter of Earth's umbra does not decrease appreciably within the changes in the Moon's orbital distance. Thus, the concurrence of a totally eclipsed Moon near apogee will lengthen the duration of totality.
A central lunar eclipse is a total lunar eclipse during which the Moon passes through the centre of Earth's shadow, contacting the antisolar point. This type of lunar eclipse is relatively rare. A selenelion or selenehelion occurs when both the Sun and an eclipsed Moon can be observed at the same time.
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This can occur only just before sunset or just after sunrise , when both bodies will appear just above the horizon at nearly opposite points in the sky. This arrangement has led to the phenomenon being also called a horizontal eclipse. Typically, a number of high ridges undergoing sunrise or sunset can view it. Although the Moon is in Earth's umbra, both the Sun and an eclipsed Moon can be simultaneously seen because atmospheric refraction causes each body to appear higher in the sky than their true geometric positions.
The timing of total lunar eclipses are determined by its contacts: . There is often confusion between a solar eclipse and a lunar eclipse. While both involve interactions between the Sun, Earth, and the Moon, they are very different in their interactions. The Moon does not completely darken as it passes through the umbra because of the refraction of sunlight by Earth's atmosphere into the shadow cone; if Earth had no atmosphere, the Moon would be completely dark during the eclipse. Shorter wavelengths are more likely to be scattered by the air molecules and small particles ; thus, the longer wavelengths predominate by the time the light rays have penetrated the atmosphere.
Human vision perceives this resulting light as red. This is the same effect that causes sunsets and sunrises to turn the sky a reddish color. An alternative way of conceiving this scenario is to realize that, as viewed from the Moon, the Sun would appear to be setting or rising behind Earth.
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The amount of refracted light depends on the amount of dust or clouds in the atmosphere; this also controls how much light is scattered. In general, the dustier the atmosphere, the more that other wavelengths of light will be removed compared to red light , leaving the resulting light a deeper red color.
This causes the resulting coppery-red hue of the Moon to vary from one eclipse to the next. Volcanoes are notable for expelling large quantities of dust into the atmosphere, and a large eruption shortly before an eclipse can have a large effect on the resulting color. Several cultures have myths related to lunar eclipses or allude to the lunar eclipse as being a good or bad omen. The Egyptians saw the eclipse as a sow swallowing the Moon for a short time; other cultures view the eclipse as the Moon being swallowed by other animals, such as a jaguar in Mayan tradition, or a three legged toad in China.
Some societies thought it was a demon swallowing the Moon, and that they could chase it away by throwing stones and curses at it.
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Similarly to the Mayans, the Incans believed that lunar eclipses occurred when a jaguar would eat the Moon, which is why a blood moon looks red. The Incans also believed that once the jaguar finished eating the Moon, it could come down and devour all the animals on Earth, so they would take spears and shout at the Moon to keep it away. The ancient Mesopotamians believed that a lunar eclipse was when the Moon was being attacked by seven demons. This attack was more than just one on the Moon, however, for the Mesopotamians linked what happened in the sky with what happened on the land, and because the king of Mesopotamia represented the land, the seven demons were thought to be also attacking the king.
In order to prevent this attack on the king, the Mesopotamians made someone pretend to be the king so they would be attacked instead of the true king. After the lunar eclipse was over, the substitute king was made to disappear possibly by poisoning. In some Chinese cultures, people would ring bells to prevent a dragon or other wild animals from biting the Moon. Certain lunar eclipses have been referred to as "blood moons" in popular articles but this is not a scientifically-recognized term. The first, and simpler, meaning relates to the reddish color a totally eclipsed Moon takes on to observers on Earth.
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The big news for Sagittarius Season is that Jupiter, the planet that rules Sagittarius, is leaving its home sign after being there for the past year. Moving onto conquer the steep slopes of Capricorn, Jupiter will help us all cultivate an appreciation for the work it takes to both bring about, and then handle, abundance. From December 2, — December 19, , Jupiter will transit through Capricorn for the first time in 12 years.
The part of our chart that Jupiter is transiting through will receive the blessing of magnification.
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Jupiter encourages our faith, growth, and resilience by focusing on the bright-side. Jupiter is excited by possibilities, never wanting […]. As Venus and Jupiter meet up to bless the part of our chart that contains the last few degrees of […]. Your Full Moon horoscopes cover November 11 — November They are meant to be read as inspiration. If you know both your rising sign and sun sign, please read both horoscopes. They both contain important information. Take what works for you, leave the […].